Optimal pH for winter wheat is 6.5. When pH is below 5.5, yields of most wheat cultivars can be markedly lower, due to susceptibility to P, Mo and Ca deficiencies. In soils with pH >7.5 deficiencies of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, P and Zn are likely to appear.
Winter wheat prefers temperatures of 15–25 °C during germination, but can also tolerate temperatures between 2–30 °C. Optimal temperature at tillering and initiation of ear primordia is 6–9 °C.
If grain is the only part that is removed from the field during harvest, nitrogen is, by far, the most important element that should be applied to the soil for compensating the nutrient removal. But, if the entire plant is removed (e.g. for using the straw too), potassium is just as important as nitrogen. While phosphorus features no more than 25% of the N & K needs.
If grain is the only part that is removed from the field during harvest, Mn, Zn and Cu should be applied in the following ratio 1 : 0.5 : 0.25 But, if the entire plant is removed (including the straw), Mn application rate should be at least doubled, and the ration of Mn, Zn and Cu should be 2 : 0.5 : 0.5