Corn is a C-4 annual crop, which means that it has a high light-use efficiency. The crop does well on any soil with adequate drainage, which ensure aerobic conditions. Soils must also have an adequate water-holding capacity, to provide adequate moisture throughout the growing season. Corn prefers a soil pH between 6.0–7.2. This crop has a high requirement of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and manganese.