Sugar cane is a perennial grass, which normally grows with 3–5 ratoons, before returning to crop cycle. Optimal soil is medium to heavy, pH 5-8.5 where liming is required if pH<5. Optimum temperature range 25-30 °C. High temperature, with high humidity and moist soil, is favourable for vegetative growth but it should be followed by cool dry weather to promote ripening. Crop can do well also at semi-arid conditions, given it is well irrigated, e.g. by fertigation with above-ground, or sub-soil dripping. Best sugar-cane mineral nutrition regime includes the use of CRFs, fertigation with fully-soluble fertilizers, and foliar feeding.